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[ edit ]Environmental effects
- Bioremediation : use of microorganisms [ 6 ] or biological agents [ 7 ] to break down or remove oil
- Bioremediation Accelerator: Oleophilic, hydrophobic chemical, containing no bacteria, which chemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons.The bioremedation accelerator acts as a herding agent in water and on the surface, floating molecules to the surface of the water, including solubles such as phenols and BTEX, forming gel-like agglomerations. Non-detectable levels of hydrocarbons can be obtained in produced water and manageable water columns. By over spraying sheen with bio remediation accelerator, sheen is eliminated within minutes. Whether applied on land or on water, the nutrient-rich emulsion, creates a bloom of local, indigenous, pre-existing, hydrocarbon-consuming bacteria. Those specific bacteria break down the hydrocarbons into water and carbon dioxide, with EPA tests showing 98% of alkanes biodegraded in 28 days; and aromatics being biodegraded 200 times faster than in nature [ 8 ] .
- Controlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water, if done properly. [ 9 ] But it can only be done in low wind , [ citation needed ]and can cause air pollution . [ 10 ]
- Dispersants act as detergents , clustering around oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water. [ 11 ] This improves the surface aesthetically, and mobilizes the oil. Smaller oil droplets, scattered by currents, may cause less harm and may degrade more easily. But the dispersed oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral . Recent research indicates that some dispersant are toxic to corals. [ 12 ]
- Watch and wait: in some cases, natural attenuation of oil may be most appropriate, due to the invasive nature of facilitated methods of remediation, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas. [ citation needed ]
- Dredging : for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water.
- Skimming : Requires calm waters
- Solidifying [ citation needed ]
- Booms: large floating barriers that round up oil and lift the oil off the water
- Skimmers : skim the oil
- Sorbents: large absorbents that absorb oil
- Chemical and biological agents: helps to break down the oil
- Vacuums: remove oil from beaches and water surface
- Shovels and other road equipments: typically used to clean up oil on beaches
- Certain Products such as Nokomis 3
[ edit ]Prevention
- Secondary containment - methods to prevent releases of oil or hydrocarbons into environment.
- Oil Spill Prevention Containment and Countermeasures (SPCC) program by the United States Environmental Protection Agency .
- Double hulling - build double hulls into vessels, which reduces the risk and severity of a spill in case of a collision or grounding. Existing single-hull vessels can also be rebuilt to have a double hull.
[ edit ]Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Mapping
[ edit ]NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration
[ edit ]Shoreline Type
[ edit ]Biological Resources
[ edit ]Human-Use Resources
[ edit ]Estimating the volume of a spill
|Film thickness||Quantity spread|
|First trace of color||0.0000060||0.0001500||100||1.500|
|Bright bands of color||0.0000120||0.0003000||200||2.900|
|Colors begin to dull||0.0000400||0.0010000||666||9.700|
|Colors are much darker||0.0000800||0.0020000||1332||19.500|
[ edit ]Largest oil spills
|Spill / Tanker||Location||Date||*Tons of crude oil||Reference|
|Gulf War oil spill||Persian Gulf||January 21, 1991||1,360,000–113,293,207 (36 billion gallons)||[ 21 ] [ 22 ]|
|Ixtoc I oil well||Gulf of Mexico||June 3, 1979–March 23, 1980||454,000–480,000||[ 24 ]|
|Atlantic Empress / Aegean Captain||Trinidad and Tobago||July 19, 1979||287,000||[ 25 ] [ 26 ]|
|Fergana Valley||Uzbekistan||March 2, 1992||285,000||[ 22 ]|
|Nowruz oil field||Persian Gulf||February 1983||260,000||[ 27 ]|
|ABT Summer||700 nautical miles (1,300 km) off Angola||1991||260,000||[ 25 ]|
|Castillo de Bellver||Saldanha Bay , South Africa||August 6, 1983||252,000||[ 25 ]|
|Amoco Cadiz||Brittany , France||March 16, 1978||223,000||[ 22 ] [ 25 ]|
|Amoco Haven tanker disaster||Mediterranean Sea near Genoa , Italy||1991||144,000||[ 25 ]|
|Odyssey||700 nautical miles (1,300 km) off Nova Scotia , Canada||1988||132,000||[ 25 ]|
|Sea Star||Gulf of Oman||December 19, 1972||115,000||[ 22 ] [ 25 ]|
|Torrey Canyon||Scilly Isles , UK||March 18, 1967||80,000–119,000||[ 22 ] [ 25 ]|
|Irenes Serenade||Navarino Bay , Greece||1980||100,000||[ 25 ]|
|Urquiola||A Coruña , Spain||May 12, 1976||100,000||[ 25 ]|
[ edit ]See also
- Environmental issues with shipping
- List of oil spills
- LNG spill
- Low-temperature thermal desorption
- National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan
- Ohmsett (Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank)
- Oil Gone Easy
- Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (in the US)
- Penguin sweater
- Spill containment
[ edit ]References
- ^ "Hindsight and Foresight, 20 Years After the Exxon Valdez Spill" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2010-03-16 . Retrieved 2010-04-30 .
- ^ http://seeps.geol.ucsb.edu/
- ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Magellanic Penguin , GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
- ^ Dunnet, G., Crisp, D., Conan, G., Bourne, W. (1982) "Oil Pollution and Seabird Populations [and Discussion]" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B 297(1087): 413–427
- ^ Untold Seabird Mortality due to Marine Oil Pollution , Elements Online Environmental Magazine.
- ^ http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/540.html
- ^ http://www.epa.gov/oilspill/ncp/bagents.htm
- ^ http://www.epa.gov/emergencies/content/ncp/products/s200.htm
- ^ a b "Emergency Response: Responding to Oil Spills" . Office of Response and Restoration . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2007-06-20 .
- ^ Oil Spills
- ^ "Detergent and Oil Spills" . NEWTON BBS . 2002-10-12 .
- ^ Barry, Carolyn (2007). Slick Death: Oil-spill treatment kills coral , Science News vol. 172, p. 67.
- ^ http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/resource_resourcetopic.php?RECORD_KEY(resourcetopics)=resourcetopic_id&resourcetopic_id(resourcetopics)=37
- ^ http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/
- ^ a b c d NOAA (2002). Environmental Sensitivity Index Guidelines, version 3.0. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OR&R 11. Seattle: Hazardous Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 129p.
- ^ Gundlach, ER and MO Hayes (1978). Vulnerability of Coastal Environments to Oil Spill Impacts. Marine Technology Society. 12 (4): 18-27.
- ^ a b NOAA (2008). Introduction to Environmental Sensitivity Index maps. NOAA Technical Manual. Seattle: Hazardous Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 56p.
- ^ a b IMO/IPIECA (1994). Sensitivity Mapping for Oil Spill Response. International Maritime Organization/ International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association Report Series, Volume 1. 22p.
- ^ Metcalf & Eddy. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 98.
- ^ Anderson, EL, E. Howlett, K. Jayko, V. Kolluru, M. Reed, and M. Spaulding. 1993. The worldwide oil spill model (WOSM): an overview. Pp. 627–646 in Proceedings of the 16th Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program, Technical Seminar. Ottawa, Ontario: Environment Canada.
- ^ George Draffan. "Major Oil Spills" . Endgame . Retrieved 2007-07-29 .
- ^ a b c d e "History" . The Mariner Group .
- ^ "Gulf Oil Spill Is Bad, but How Bad?" .
- ^ John S. Patton, Mark W. Rigler, Paul D. Boehm & David L. Fiest (1981-03-19). "Ixtoc 1 oil spill: flaking of surface mousse in the Gulf of Mexico" . NPG (Nature Publishing Group) . Retrieved 2007-07-29 .
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Statistics" . ITOPF . Retrieved 2007-07-29 .
- ^ "Atlantic Empress/Aegean Captain" . Cedre . 2006-04 .
- ^ "Oil Spills and Disasters" . infoplease . infoplease .
[ edit ]Further reading
- The World Almanac and Book of Facts , 2004
- Oil Spill Case Histories 1967-1991 , NOAA/Hazardous Materials and Response Division, Seattle WA, 1992
- Nelson-Smith, Oil Pollution and Marine Ecology, Elek Scientific, London, 1972; Plenum, New York, 1973
[ edit ]
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- History's 10 Most Famous Oil Spills | gCaptain
- www.cedre.fr Centre of Documentation, Research and Experimentation on Accidental Water Pollution
- SINTEF's research on oil spill and response
- oil spill and environmental clean-up news
- International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation
- Gulf of Mexico
- Newsweek's Black Tides Timeline, 1967-2005
- Industrial pollution information from the Coastal Ocean Institute , Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
- Oil spill prevention program
- This page was last modified on 5 May 2010 at 20:08.
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