2009年11月24日火曜日

【T H E P E R I O D I C T A B L E with SEAWATER ADDITIONS 】-【海水の成分表】

【T H E P E R I O D I C T A B L E with SEAWATER ADDITIONS 】-【海水の成分表】 


【出展引用リンク】: T H E P E R I O D I C T A B L E with SEAWATER ADDITIONS

http://www.marscigrp.org/ocpertbl.html









solid
liquid
T H E   P E R I O D I C  T A B L E
with SEAWATER ADDITIONS

gas
synthetic
 Atomic #: Name: Discoverer
 Valence: Ionic radius:  Most abundant Isotopes:

1A
2A
3B
4B
5B
6B
7B
8
1B
2B
3A
4A
5A
6A
7A
   0
1
H

 Atomic Weight;   Melt | Boil Points  º(Celsius) 
1
H

2
He

3
Li

4
Be

 Shell   Total # of Isotopes:  
5
B

6
C

7
N

8
O

9
F

10
Ne

11
Na

12
Mg

  Orbital:  Specific Gravity:  
13
Al

14
Si

15
P

16
S

17
Cl

18
Ar

19
K

20
Ca

21
Sc

22
Ti

23
V

24
Cr

25
Mn

26
Fe

27
Co

28
Ni

29
Cu

30
Zn

31
Ga

32
Ge

33
As

34
Se

35
Br

36
Kr

37
Rb

38
Sr

39
Y

40
Zr

41
Nb

42
Mo

43
Tc

44
Ru

45
Rh

46
Pd

47
Ag

48
Cd

49
In

50
Sn

51
Sb

52
Te

53
I

54
Xe

55
Cs

56
Ba

57
La

72
Hf

73
Ta

74
W

75
Re

76
Os

77
Ir

78
Pt

79
Au

80
Hg

81
Tl

82
Pb

83
Bi

84
Po

85
At

86
Rn

87
Fr

88
Ra

89
Ac

104
Rh

105
Db

106
Sg

107
Bh

108
Hs

109
Mt

110
Uun

111
Uuu

112
Uub

113
Uut

114
Uuq

Lanthanides
58
Ce

59
Pr

60
Nd

61
Pm

62
Sm

53
Eu

64
Gd

65
Tb

66
Dy

67
Ho

68
Er

69
Tm

70
Yb

71
Lu


Actinides
90
Th

91
Pa

92
U

93
Np

94
Pu

95
Am

96
Cm

97
Bk

98
Cf

99
Es

100
Fm

101
Md

102
No

103
Lr


SEA WATER VALUES
CLICK ON ELEMENT SYMBOL FOR DETAILED REFERENCE CITATION
 Species:   PPM:   MilliMoles:  Res. Time (yrs): 
 Type:  Reference: 
Sea Water REFERENCES and DISCUSSION
in Quinby-Hunt and Wilde (1987) and Quinby-Hunt and Turekian (1983)
SEA WATER REFERENCES BY ATOMIC NUMBER






Classic Early References

Dittmar, W. 1884. Report on the scientific results of the exploring voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger. H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1.

Forchhammer, G. 1865. On the composition of sea-water in the different parts of the ocean. Roy. Soc. London, Phil. Trans. 155: 203-262.

General References

Quinby-Hunt, M.S. and K.K. Turekian. 1983. Distribution of elements in sea water. EOS, 64: 130-131.

Brewer, P. G., 1975, Minor Elements in Sea Water (Chap. 7) in Riley, J. P. and Skirrow, G. (eds.) Chemical Oceanography, 2nd Ed, Academic Press, London, New York, San Francisco, v. 1, p. 415-496.

Quinby-Hunt, M.S. and P. Wilde. 1986/87. Modeling of dissolved elements in sea water. Ocean Science and Engineering, v, 11, no. 3,4, p. 153-251.

Nozaki, Y. 1997, A fresh look at element distribution in the North Pacific: EOS, v. 78, p. 221-223.

Redfield, A.C., B.H. Ketchum, and F.A. Richards. 1963. The influence of organisms on the composition of sea water. In: Hill, M.N. (ed.) The Sea, Wiley-Interscience, New York. pp. 2677.

Riley, J.P. 1965a. Historical Introduction. In J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow (eds.) Chemical Oceanography. Academic Press. London, 1: 1-41.

Riley, J.P., and M. Tongudai. 1967. The major cation/chlorinity ratios in sea water. Chem. Geol., 2: 263-269.

Skirrow, G. 1975. The dissolved gases - carbon dioxide. In J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow (eds.) Chemical Oceanography. Academic Press, London, 2: 1-192.

Wilson, T.R.S. 1975. Salinity and the major elements of sea water. In J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow (eds.), Chemical Oceanography, Academic Press, London, 1: 365-413.

Specific to Element References

1 HYDROGEN

2 HELIUM
Clarke, W.B., M.A. Beg, and H. Craig. 1969. Excess 3He in the sea: evidence for terrestrial primordial helium. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 6: 213-220.

Clarke, W.B., M.A. Beg, and H. Craig. 1970. Excess He-3 at the North Pacific GEOSECS station. J. Geophys. Res., 75: 76767678.

Craig, H., W.B. Clarke, and M.A. Beg. 1975. Excess 3He in deep water on the East Pacific Rise. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 26: 125-132.

Craig, H., and J. E. Lupton. 1981. Helium-3 and mantle volatiles in the ocean and the oceanic crust. In C. Emiliani (ed.), The Sea: The Oceanic Lithosphere. Wiley-Interscience, 7: 391-428.
Konig, H., H. Wanke, G.S. Bien, N.W. Rakestraw, and H.E. Suess. 1964. Helium, neon, and argon in the oceans. Deep-Sea Res., 11: 243-247.

Weiss, R.F. 1971, Solubility of Helium and Neon in water and sea water. Jour. Chem. Eng. Data, v. 16, p.235-241.

Weiss, R.F. 1977. Hydrothermal manganese in the deep sea: Scavenging residence time and Mn/He3 relationships. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 37: 257-262.

3 LITHIUM
Angino, E.E., and G.K. Billings. 1966. Lithium content of seawater. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 30: 153-158.

Fabricand, B.P., E.S. Imbimbo, and M.E. Brey. 196T. Atomic absorption analyses for Ca, Li, Mg, K, Rb and Sr at two Atlantic stations. Deep-Sea Res., 14: 785-789.

Fabricand, B.P., E.S. Imbimbo, M.E. Brey, and J.A. Weston. 1966. Atomic absorption spectrometric analysis for Li, Mg, K, Rb, and Sr. J. Geophys. Res., 71: 3917-3921.

Riley, J.P., and M. Tongudai. 1964. The lithium content of sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 11: 563-568.

4 BERYLIUM
Measures, C.I., and J. Edmond. 1982. Beryllium in the water column of the central North Pacific. Nature. 297: 51-53.

Measures, C.I. and J. Edmond. 1983. The geochemical cycle of 9Be: a reconnaissance. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 66: 101-110.

Measures, C.I., B. Grant, M. Khadem, D.S. Lee, and J.M. Edmond. 1984. Distribution of Be, Al, Se, and Bi in the surface waters of the western North Atlantic and Caribbean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 71: 1-12.

Merrill, J. R., E. F. X. Lyden, M. Honda, and J. R. Arnold. 1960. The sedimentary geochemistry of beryllium isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 18: 108-129.

5 BORON
Gassaway, J.D. 1967. New method for boron determination in sea water. Int. J. Oceanol Limnol. 1: 85-90.

Noakes, J.E., and D.W. Hood. 1961. Boron-boric acid complexes in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 8: 121-129.

Williams, P.M., and P.M. Strack. 1966. Complexes and boric acid with organic cis-diols in seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr., 11, 401-404.

6 CARBON
Bradshaw, A.L., P.G. Brewer, D.K. Shafer, and R.T. Williams. 1981. Measurement of total carbon dioxide and alkalinity by potentiometric titration in the GEOSECS program. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 55: 99-115.

Edmond, J.M. 1974. On the dissolution of carbonate and silicate in the deep ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 21: 455-480.

7 NITROGEN
Gundersen, K. and C.W. Mountain. 1973. Oxygen utilization and pH change in the ocean resulting from biological nitrate formation. Deep-Sea Res., 20: 1083-1091.

Treguer, P., and P. Le Corre. 1979. The ratios of nitrate, phosphate and silicate during uptake and regeneration phases of the Moroccan upwelling region. Deep-Sea Res., 26: 163-184.

Vaccaro, R.F. 1965. Inorganic nitrogen in sea water. In: Riley, J.P. and G. Skirrow (eds.), Chemical Oceanography, Academic Press, New York. 1: 365-408.

Weiss, R.F. 1970. The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Res., 17: 721-735.

8 OXYGEN
Gundersen, K. and C.W. Mountain. 1973. Oxygen utilization and pH change in the ocean resulting from biological nitrate formation. Deep-Sea Res., 20: 1083-1091.

Morrison, J. M., and W. D. Nowlin Jr. 1977. Repeated nutrient, oxygen and density sections through the Loop Current. J. Mar. Res., 35: 105-128.

Weiss, R.F. 1970. The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Res., 17: 721-735.

9 FLUORINE
Brewer, P.G., D.W. Spencer, and R.E. Wilkniss. 1970. Anomalous fluoride concentrations in the north Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., 17: 1-7.

Bewers, J.M. 1971. North Atlantic fluoride profiles. Deep-Sea Res., 18: 237-241.

Bewers, J.M., G.R. Miller, D.R. Kester, and T.B. Warner. 1973. Rapid changes in the fluoride to chlorinity ratio south of Greenland. Nature, 242: 142-143.

Riley, J.P. 1965b. The occurrence of anomalously high fluoride concentrations in the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., 12: 219-220.

Sen Gupta, R., S. Naik, and S.Y.S. Singbal. 1978. A study of fluoride, calcium, and magnesium in the northern Indian ocean. Mar. Chem., 6: 125-141.

Warner, J.B. 1971. Normal fluoride content of seawater. DeepSea Res., 18: 1255-1263.

Wilkniss, P.E., and V.J. Linnenbom. 1968. The determination of fluorine in sea water by photon activation analysis. Limnol. Oceanogr., 13: 530-533

10 NEON
Bieri, R.H., M. Koide, and E.D. Goldberg. 1966. The noble gases in seawater. Science, 146: 1035-1037.

Konig, H., H. Wanke, G.S. Bien, N.W. Rakestraw, and H.E. Suess. 1964. Helium, neon, and argon in the oceans. Deep-Sea Res., 11: 243-247.

Weiss, R.F. 1971, Solubility of Helium and Neon in water and sea water. Jour. Chem. Eng. Data, v. 16, p.235-241.

11 SODIUM
Culkin, F. and R.A. Cox. 1966. Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and strontium in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 13: 789804.

12 MAGNESIUM 
Culkin, F. and R.A. Cox. 1966. Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and strontium in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 13: 789-804.

Fabricand, B.P., E.S. Imbimbo, and M.E. Brey. 1967. Atomic absorption analyses for Ca, Li, Mg, K, Rb and Sr at two Atlantic stations. Deep-Sea Res., 14: 785-789.

Fabricand, B.P., E.S. Imbimbo, M.E. Brey, and J.A. Weston. 1966. Atomic absorption spectrometric analysis for Li, Mg, K, Rb, and Sr. J. Geophys. Res., 71: 3917-3921.

Sen Gupta, R., S. Naik, and S.Y.S. Singbal. 1978. A study of fluoride, calcium, and magnesium in the northern Indian ocean. Mar. Chem., 6: 125-141.

13 ALUMINUM
Alberts, J.J., D.E. Leyden, and T.A. Patterson. 1976. Distribution of total aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc in the Tongue of the Ocean and northwest Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem., 4: 51-56.

Hydes, D.J. 1979. Aluminum in seawater: control by inorganic processes. Science, 205: 1260-1262.

Hydes, D.J. 1983. Distribution of aluminum in waters of the northeast Atlantic, 250N to 350N. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 47: 967-973.

Mackenzie, F.T., M. Stoffyn, and R. Wollast. 1978. Aluminum in sea water: control by biological activity. Science, 199: 680-682.

Measures, C.I., Edmond, J.M. and T.D. Jickells. 1986. Aluminum in the northwest Atlantic. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 50: 14231429.

Measures, C.I., B. Grant, M. Khadem, D.S. Lee, and J.M. Edmond. 1984. Distribution of Be, Al, Se, and Bi in the surface waters of the western North Atlantic and Caribbean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 71: 1-12.

Measures, C. I., 1995, The distribution of Al in the IOC stations of the Eastern Atlantic between 30oS and 34oN: Marine Chemistry, v. 49, p. 267-281.

Moore, R. M. 1981. Oceanographic distributions of zinc, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in waters of the central Arctic. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 45: 2475-2482.

Olafsson, J. 1983. Mercury concentrations in the North Atlantic in relation to cadmium, aluminum, and oceanographic parameters. In: Wong, C.S., E. Boyle, K.W. Bruland, J.D. Burton, and E.D. Goldberg (eds.) Trace Metals In Sea Water, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 475-485.

Orians, K.J. and K.W. Bruland (1986) The biochemistry of aluminum in the Pacific Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 78: 397-410.

Sackett, W.M., and G. Arrhenius. 1962. Distribution of aluminum. species of the hydrosphere: aluminum in the ocean. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 26: 955-968.

Stoffyn, M. and F.T. Mackenzie. 1982. Fate of dissolved aluminum in the oceans. Mar. Chem., 11: 105-127.

14 SILICON
Edmond, J.M. 1974. On the dissolution of carbonate and silicate in the deep ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 21: 455-480.
Grasshoff, K. 1964. On the determination of silica in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 11: 597-604.

Froelich, P.N.J., D.K. Atwood, and G.S. Giese. 1978. Influence of Amazon River discharge of surface salinity and dissolved silicate concentration in the Caribbean Sea. Deep-Sea Res., 25: 735-744.

Treguer, P., and P. Le Corre. 1979. The ratios of nitrate, phosphate and silicate during uptake and regeneration phases of the Moroccan upwelling region. Deep-Sea Res., 26: 163-184.

15 PHOSPHORUS
Treguer, P., and P. Le Corre. 1979. The ratios of nitrate, phosphate and silicate during uptake and regeneration phases of the Moroccan upwelling region. Deep-Sea Res., 26: 163-184.

16 SULFUR
Morris, A. W., and J. P. Riley. 1966. The bromide/chlorinity and sulphate/chlorinity ratio in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 13: 699-705.

17 CHLORINE
Morris, A. W., and J. P. Riley. 1966. The bromide/chlorinity and sulphate/chlorinity ratio in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 13: 699-705.

18 ARGON
Bieri, R.H., M. Koide, and E.D. Goldberg. 1966. The noble gases in seawater. Science, 146: 1035-1037.

Bieri, R.H., M. Koide, and E.D. Goldberg. 1968. Noble gas contents of marine waters. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 4: 329340.

Konig, H., H. Wanke, G.S. Bien, N.W. Rakestraw, and H.E. Suess. 1964. Helium, neon, and argon in the oceans. Deep-Sea Res., 11: 243-247.

Weiss, R.F. 1970. The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Res., 17: 721-735.

19 POTASSIUM
Culkin, F. and R.A. Cox. 1966. Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and strontium in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 13: 789804.

Fabricand, B.P., E.S. Imbimbo, and M.E. Brey. 196T. Atomic absorption analyses for Ca, Li, Mg, K, Rb and Sr at two Atlantic stations. Deep-Sea Res., 14: 785-789.

Fabricand, B.P., E.S. Imbimbo, M.E. Brey, and J.A. Weston. 1966. Atomic absorption spectrometric analysis for Li, Mg, K, Rb, and Sr. J. Geophys. Res., 71: 3917-3921.

20 CALCIUM
Culkin, F. and R.A. Cox. 1966. Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and strontium in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 13: 789804.

Fabricand, B.P., E.S. Imbimbo, and M.E. Brey. 1967. Atomic absorption analyses for Ca, Li, Mg, K, Rb and Sr at two Atlantic stations. Deep-Sea Res., 14: 785-789.

Horibe, Y., K. Endo, and H. Tsubota. 1974. Calcium in the South Pacific and its correlation with carbonate alkalinity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 23: 136-140.

Li, Y. H., T. Takahashi, and W.S. Broecker. 1969. Degree of saturation of CaC03 in the oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 74: 55075525.

Sen Gupta, R., S. Naik, and S.Y.S. Singbal. 1978. A study of fluoride, calcium, and magnesium in the northern Indian ocean. Mar. Chem., 6: 125-141.

Shiller, A.M., and J.M. Gieskes. 1980. Processes affecting the oceanic distribution of dissolved calcium and alkalinity. J. Geophys. Res., 85: 2719-2728.

21 SCANDIUM
22 TITANIUM
Griel, J.V. and R.J. Robinson. 1952. Titanium in sea water. J. Mar. Res., 11: 173-179.

Orians, K. J., E. A. Boyle, and K. W. Bruland. 1990, Dissolved Titanium in the open ocean: Nature, v. 348, p. 322-325.

23 VANADIUM
Huizenga, D.L. and D.R. Kester. 1982. The distribution of vanadium in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. EOS, 63: 990.

Morris, A. W. 1975. Dissolved molybdenum and vanadium in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 22: 49-54.

Orians, K. J., E. A. Boyle, and K. W. Bruland. 1990, Dissolved titanium in the open ocean: Nature, v. 348, p. 322-325.

Zhou, J.-Y., R. McDuff, and J. W. Murray. 1982. The distribution of vanadium, chromium and manganese in the northwest Pacific. EOS, 63: 989-990.

24 CHROMIUM
Cranston, R.E. 1979. Chromium species in natural waters. Ph.D thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Cranston, R.E. and J.W. Murray. 1978. The determination of chromium species in natural waters. Anal. Chim. Acta, 99: 275282.

Zhou, J.-Y., R. McDuff, and J. W. Murray. 1982. The distribution of vanadium, chromium and manganese in the northwest Pacific. EOS, 63: 989-990.

25 MANGANESE
Bacon, M.P., P.G. Brewer, D.W. Spencer, J.W. Murray, and J. Goddard. 1980. Lead-210, polonium-210, manganese and iron in the Cariaco Trench. Deep-Sea Res., 27: 119-135.

Bender, M.L., G.P. Klinkhammer, and D.W. Spencer. 1977. Manganese in sea water and the marine manganese balance. DeepSea Res., 24: 799-812.
Klinkhammer, G.P. and M.L. Bender. 1980. The distribution of manganese in the Pacific Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 46: 361-384.

Klinkhammer, C.P., M.L. Bender, and R.F. Weiss. 1977. Hydrothermal manganese in the Galapagos Rift. Nature, 269: 319320.
Knauer, G.A., and J.H. Martin. 1973. Seasonal variations of cadmium, copper, manganese, lead and zinc in water and phytoplankton in Monterey Bay, California. Limnol. Oceanogr., 18: 597-604.

Kremling, K. 1983. The behavior of Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn in anoxic Baltic waters. Mar. Chem., 15: 87-108.
Landing, W.M., and K.W. Bruland. 1980. Manganese in the North Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 49: 45-56.

Martin, J.H. and G.A. Knauer. 1980. Manganese cycling in northeast Pacific waters. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 51: 266.

Martin, J.H. and G.A. Knauer. 1982. Manganese cycling in northeast Pacific equatorial waters. J. Mar. Res., 40: 1213.

Martin, J.H. and G.A. Knauer. 1984. VERTEX: Manganese transport through oxygen minima. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 67: 35-47.

Martin, J.H. and G.A. Knauer. 1985. Lateral transport of Mn in the north-east Pacific Gyre oxygen minimum. Nature 314: 524526.

Weiss, R.F. 1977. Hydrothermal manganese in the deep sea: Scavenging residence time and Mn/He3 relationships. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 37: 257-262.

Zhou, J.-Y., R. McDuff, and J. W. Murray. 1982. The distribution of vanadium, chromium and manganese in the northwest Pacific. EOS, 63: 989-990.

26 IRON
Bacon, M.P., P.G. Brewer, D.W. Spencer, J.W. Murray, and J. Goddard. 1980. Lead-210, polonium-210, manganese and iron in the Cariaco Trench. Deep-Sea Res., 27: 119-135.

Corcoran, E.F. 1967. Distribution of copper and iron in tropical sea water. In Proceedings of an International Conference on Tropical Oceanography. University of Miami, Inst. Mar. Sci., 290-304.

Gordon, R.M., J. H. Martin, and G.A. Knauer. 1982. Iron in northeast Pacific waters. Nature (Lond.), 299: 611-612.
Kremling, K. 1983. The behavior of Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn in anoxic Baltic waters. Mar. Chem., 15: 87-108.

Menzel, D. W., and J. P. Spaeth. 1962. Occurrence of iron in the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda. Limnol. Oceanogr., 7: 155-158.

Nolting, R. F., DeBaar, H. J. W., VanBennekom, A. J. and Masson, A., 1991, Cadmium, copper, and iron in the Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and the Weddel/Scotia confluence (Antarctica): Mar. Chem., v. 35, p. 219-243.

Symes, J.L. and D.R. Kester. 1985. The distribution of iron in the northwest Atlantic. Mar. Chem., 17: 57-71.

27 COBALT
Alberts, J.J., D.E. Leyden, and T.A. Patterson. 1976. Distribution of total aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc in the Tongue of the Ocean and northwest Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem., 4: 51-56.

Knauer, G.A., J.H. Martin, and R.M. Gordon. 1982. Cobalt in northwest Pacific waters. Nature, 297: 49-51.

Kremling, K. 1983. The behavior of Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn in anoxic Baltic waters. Mar. Chem., 15: 87-108.

Schutz, D.F., and K.K. Turekian. 1965b. The distribution of cobalt, nickel and silver in ocean water profiles around Pacific Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 70: 5519-5528.

28 NICKEL
Alberts, J.J., D.E. Leyden, and T.A. Patterson. 1976. Distribution of total aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc in the Tongue of the Ocean and northwest Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem., 4: 51-56.

Bender, M.L., and C. Gagner. 1976. Dissolved copper, nickel and cadmium in the Sargasso Sea. J. Mar. Res., 34: 327-339.

Boyle, E.A., S.S. Huested, and B.A. Grant. 1982. The chemical mass balance of the Amazon plume II: Copper, nickel, and cadmium. Deep-sea Res., 29: 1355-1364.

Kremling, K. 1983. The behavior of Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn in anoxic Baltic waters. Mar. Chem., 15: 87-108.

Lee, D.S. 1983. Palladium and nickel in northeast Pacific waters. Nature, 305: 47-48.

Nolting, R. F., and DeBaar, H. J. W., 1994, Behavior of nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium in the upper 300 M of a transect in the Southern Ocean (57o-62o S, 49o W): Mar. Chem., v. 45, p. 225-242.

Saager, P. M., Hein, J., DeBaar, H. J. W. and Howland, R. J., 1992, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Cu in the Indian Ocean: Deep-Sea Res., v. 39, p. 9-35.

Schutz, D.F., and K.K. Turekian. 1965b. The distribution of cobalt, nickel and silver in ocean water profiles around Pacific Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 70: 5519-5528.

Sclater, F.R., E. Boyle, and J.M. Edmond. 1976. On the marine geochemistry of nickel. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 31: 119-128.

29 COPPER
Bender, M.L., and C. Gagner. 1976. Dissolved copper, nickel and cadmium in the Sargasso Sea. J. Mar. Res., 34: 327-339.

Boyle, E.A., and J.M. Edmond. 1975. Copper in surface waters south of New Zealand. Nature, 253: 107-109.

Boyle, E.A., S.S. Huested, and B.A. Grant. 1982. The chemical mass balance of the Amazon plume II: Copper, nickel, and cadmium. Deep-sea Res., 29: 1355-1364.

Boyle, E.A., F.R. Sclater, and J.W. Edmond. 1977. The distribution of dissolved copper in the Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 37: 38-54.

Corcoran, E.F. 1967. Distribution of copper and iron in tropical sea water. In Proceedings of an International Conference on Tropical Oceanography. University of Miami, Inst. Mar. Sci., 290-304.

Knauer, G.A., and J.H. Martin. 1973. Seasonal variations of cadmium, copper, manganese, lead and zinc in water and phytoplankton in Monterey Bay, California. Limnol. Oceanogr., 18: 597-604.

Kremling, K. 1983. The behavior of Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn in anoxic Baltic waters. Mar. Chem., 15: 87-108.

Moore, R. M. 1978. The distribution of dissolved copper in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 41: 461-468.

Moore, R. M. 1981. Oceanographic distributions of zinc, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in waters of the central Arctic. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 45: 2475-2482.

Moore, R. M., and J. D. Burton. 1976. Concentrations of dissolved copper in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, 230N-470W. Nature, 264: 241-243.

Nolting, R. F., DeBaar, H. J. W., VanBennekom, A. J. and Masson, A., 1991, Cadmium, copper, and iron in the Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and the Weddel/Scotia confluence (Antarctica): Mar. Chem., v. 35, p. 219-243.

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30 ZINC
Alberts, J.J., D.E. Leyden, and T.A. Patterson. 1976. Distribution of total aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc in the Tongue of the Ocean and northwest Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem., 4: 51-56.

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31 GALLIUM
Culkin, F. and J.P. Riley. 1958. Germanium and gallium in seawater: Nature, 181: 180.

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32 GERMANIUM
Braman, R.S., and M.A. Tompkins. 1978. Atomic emission spectrometric determination of antimony, germanium, and methylgermanium compounds in the environment. Anal. Chem., 50: 1088-1093.

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33 ARSENIC
Andreae, M.O. 1977, Determination of arsenic species in natural waters. Anal. Chem., 49: 820-823.

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34 SELENIUM
Cutter, G.A. 1978. Species determination of selenium in natural waters. Anal. Chim. Acta., 98: 59-66.

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35 BROMINE
Morris, A. W., and J. P. Riley. 1966. The bromide/chlorinity and sulphate/chlorinity ratio in sea water. Deep-Sea Res., 13: 699-705.

36 KRYPTON
Bieri, R.H., M. Koide, and E.D. Goldberg. 1966. The noble gases in seawater. Science, 146: 1035-1037.

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37 RUBIDIUM
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38 STRONTIUM
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39 YTTRIUM
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40 ZIRCONIUM
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41 NIOBIUM
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42 MOLYBDENUM
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43 TECHNETIUM
44 RUTHENIUM
Bekov, G.J., V.S. Letokov, V.N. Radaev, G.N. Baturin, A.S. Egorov, A.N. Kuisky, and V.A. Narseyev. 1984. Ruthenium in the ocean. Nature 312: 748-750.

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45 RHODIUM
Bertine, K. K., M. Koide and E. D. Goldberg. 1993, Aspects of rhodium marine chemistry: Mar. Chem., 1993.

46 PALLADIUM
Lee, D.S. 1983. Palladium and nickel in northeast Pacific waters. Nature, 305: 47-48.

47 SILVER
Martin, J.H., G. A. Knauer, and R.M. Gordon. 1983. Silver distribution and fluxes in north-east Pacific waters. Nature, 305: 306-309.

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48 CADMIUM
Alberts, J.J., D.E. Leyden, and T.A. Patterson. 1976. Distribution of total aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc in the Tongue of the Ocean and northwest Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem., 4: 51-56.

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Nolting, R. F., and DeBaar, H. J. W., 1994, Behavior of nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium in the upper 300 M of a transect in the Southern Ocean (57o-62o S, 49o W): Mar. Chem., v. 45, p. 225-242.

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49 INDIUM
Amakawa, H., S. Alibo, and Y. Nozaki. 1996, Indium concentration in Pacific seawater: Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 23, p. 2473-2476.

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50 TIN
Braman, R.S., and M.A. Tompkins. 1979. Separation and determination of microgram amounts of inorganic tin and methyl tin compounds in the environment. Anal. Chem., 51: 12-19.

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51 ANTIMONY
Braman, R.S., and M.A. Tompkins. 1978. Atomic emission spectrometric determination of antimony, germanium, and methylgermanium compounds in the environment. Anal. Chem., 50: 1088-1093.

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52 TELLURIUM
Lee, D.S. and J.M. Edmond. 1985. Tellurium species in seawater. Nature, 313: 782-785.

53 IODINE
Elderfield, H. and V.W. Truesdale. 1980. On the biophilic nature of iodine in seawater. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 50: 105-114.

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Wong, G.T.F. 1980. The stability of dissolved inorganic species of iodine in seawater. Mar. Chem., 9: 13-24.

Wong, G.T.F., and P.G. Brewer. 1974. The determination and distribution of iodate in South Atlantic waters. J. Mar. Res., 32: 25-36.

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54 XENON
Bieri, R.H., M. Koide, and E.D. Goldberg. 1966. The noble gases in seawater. Science, 146: 1035-1037.

Bieri, R.H., M. Koide, and E.D. Goldberg. 1968. Noble gas contents of marine waters. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 4: 329340.

55 CESIUM
Bolter, E., K.K. Turekian, and D.F. Schutz. 1964. The distribution of rubidium, cesium and barium in the oceans. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 28: 1459-1466.

Folsom, T.R. 1974. Gradient of cesium in the ocean. Nature (Lond.), 248: 216.

Spencer, P.W., D.E. Robertson, K.K. Turekian, and T.R. Folsom. 1970. Trace element calibrations and profiles at the GEOSECS test station in the northeast Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 75: 7688-7696.

56 BARIUM
Bacon, M.P., and J.M. Edmond. 1972. Barium at GEOSECS III in the southwest Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 16: 66-74.

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57 LANTHANUM
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DeBaar, H.J.W., M.P. Bacon, P.C. Brewer, and K.W. Bruland. 1985a. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 49: 1943-1959.

DeBaar, H.J.W., P.G. Brewer, and M.P. Bacon. 1985b. Anomalies in rare earth distributions in seawater: Gd and Tb. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 49: 1961-1969.

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58 CERIUM
59 PRASEODYNIUM
60 NEODYMIUM
Henry, F., Jeandel, C., Dupre, B. and Minster, J.-F., 1993, Particulate and dissolved Nd in the Western Mediterranean Sea; sources, fate and budget: Mar. Chem., v. 45, p. 283-305.

61 PROMETHIUM
62 SUMARIUM
63 EUROPIUM
64 GALDOLIUM
DeBaar, H.J.W., P.G. Brewer, and M.P. Bacon. 1985b. Anomalies in rare earth distributions in seawater: Gd and Tb. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 49: 1961-1969.

Kim, K.-H., Byrne, R. H. and Lee, J. H., 1991, Gdolinium behavior in sea water: A Molecular basis of gadolinium anomalies: Mar. Chem., v. 36, p. 107-120.

65 TERBIUM
DeBaar, H.J.W., P.G. Brewer, and M.P. Bacon. 1985b. Anomalies in rare earth distributions in seawater: Gd and Tb. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 49: 1961-1969.

66 DYSPROSIUM
67 HOLMIUM
68 EURBIUM
69 THULIUM
70 YTTERBIUM
71 LUTETIUM
72 HAFNIUM
73 TANTALUM
74 TUNGSTEN
Kawabuchi, K. and R. Kuroda. 1969. A combined ion-exchange spectrophotometric method for the determination of molybdenum and tungsten in sea water. Anal. Chim. Acta, 46: 23-30.

Sohrin, Y., K. Isshiki, t. Kuwamoto, and E. Nakayama. 1987, Tungsten in North Pacific waters: Mar. Chem., v. 22, p. 95-103.

75 RHENIUM
Anbar, A. D., R. A. Creaser, D. A. Papanastassiou, and G. J. Wasserburg, 1992, Rhenium in seawater: Confirmation of generally conservative behavior: Geochim. CosmoChim. Acta., v. 56, p. 4099-4103.

Matthews, A.D., and J.P. Riley. 1970c. The determination of rhenium in seawater. Anal. Chim. Acta., 51: 455-462.

Olafsson, J. and J. P. Riley. 1972. Some data on the marine geochemistry of rhenium. Chem. Geol., 9: 227-230.

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76 OSMIUM
Koide, M., E. D. Goldberg, and R. Walker. 1996, The analysis of seawater osmium: Deep-Sea Res. II, v. 43, p. 53-55.

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77 IRIDIUM
Anbar, A. D., G. J. Wasserburg, D. A. Papanastassiou, and P. S. Andersson. 1996, Iridium in natural waters: Science, v. 273, p. 1524-1528.

Fresco, J., H.V. Weiss, R.B. Phillips, and Askeland. 1985. Iridium in seawater. Talanta, 32: 830-831.

78 PLATINUM
Hodge, V.F., M. Stallard, M. Koide, and E.D. Goldberg. 1985. Platinum and the platinum anomaly in the marine environment. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 72: 158-162.

79 GOLD
Kalkner, K. K. and Edmond, J. L., 1990, Gold in seawater. Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters, v. 98, p. 208-221.

Koide, M., Hodge, V., Goldberg, E. D. and Bertine, K., 1988, Gold in seawater a conservative view. Applied Geochemistry, v. 3, p. 237-241.

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80 MERCURY
Fitzgerald, W.F. 1976. Mercury studies of seawater and rain: geochemical flux Implication. In H. L. Lindom and R.A. Duce (eds.), D.C. Health, New York, 212-134.

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81 THALLIUM
Flegal, A.R. and C.C. Patterson. 1985. Thallium concentrations in seawater. Mar. Chem., 15: 327-331.

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82 LEAD
Bacon, M.P., P.G. Brewer, D.W. Spencer, J.W. Murray, and J. Goddard. 1980. Lead-210, polonium-210, manganese and iron in the Cariaco Trench. Deep-Sea Res., 27: 119-135.

Craig, H., S. Krishnaswami, and B.L.K. Somayajulu. 1974. 21OPb Ra: radioactive disequilibrium in the deep sea. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 17: 295-305.

Knauer, G.A., and J.H. Martin. 1973. Seasonal variations of cadmium, copper, manganese, lead and zinc in water and phytoplankton in Monterey Bay, California. Limnol. Oceanogr., 18: 597-604.

Lee, D.S., J.M. Edmond, and K.W. Bruland. 1985/6. Bismuth in the Atlantic and north Pacific: A natural analogue to plutonium and lead. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 76: 254-262.

Patterson, C.C., 1974. Lead in seawater. Science, 183: 553554.

Patterson, C.C., and D. Settle. 1976. The reduction of orders of magnitude errors in lead analysis of biological materials and natural waters by evaluating and controlling the extent and sources of industrial lead contamination introduced during sample collecting, handling and analysis. U. S. Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Pub. 422. 321-351.

Schaule, B., and C.C. Patterson. 1978. The occurrence of lead in the northeast Pacific and the effects of anthropogenic inputs. In M. Bronica (ed.) Proceedings of an international experts discussion on lead: Occurrence, fate and pollution In the marine environment. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Schaule, B., and C.C. Patterson. 1981. Lead concentrations in the northeast Pacific: evidence for global anthropogenic perturbations. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 54: 97-116.

Schaule, B. and C.C. Patterson. 1983. Perturbations of the natural lead profile in the Sargasso Sea by industrial lead. In: Wong, C.S., E. Boyle, K.W. Bruland, J.D. Burton, and E.D. Goldberg (eds.) Trace Metals in Sea Water, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 487-503.

83 BISMUTH
Gilbert, T.R. and D.N. Hume. 1973. Direct determination of bismuth and antimony in sea water by anodic stripping voltammetry. Anal. Chim. Acta, 65: 451-459.

Lee, D.S. 1982. Determination of bismuth in environmental samples by flameless atomic absorption with hydride generation. Anal. Chem., 54: 1682-1686.

Lee, D.S., J.M. Edmond, and K.W. Bruland. 1985/6. Bismuth in the Atlantic and north Pacific: A natural analogue to plutonium and lead. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 76: 254-262.

Measures, C.I., B. Grant, M. Khadem, D.S. Lee, and J.M. Edmond. 1984. Distribution of Be, Al, Se, and Bi in the surface waters of the western North Atlantic and Caribbean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 71: 1-12.

Portmann, J.E., and J.P. Riley. 1966b. The determination of bismuth in natural waters with particular reference to sea water. Anal. Chim. Acta, 34: 201-210.

84 POLONIUM
Bacon, M.P., P.G. Brewer, D.W. Spencer, J.W. Murray, and J. Goddard. 1980. Lead-210, polonium-210, manganese and iron in the Cariaco Trench. Deep-Sea Res., 27: 119-135.

Bacon, M.P., D.W. Spencer, and P.G. Brewer. 1976. 210Po/226Pa and 210Po/21OPb disequilibria in seawater and suspended particulate matter. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 32: 277-296.

85 ASTATINE

86 RADON
Broecker, W.S., and A. Kaufman. 1970. Near-surface and nearbottom radon results for the 1969 North Pacific GEOSECS station. J. Geophys. Res., 75: 7682-7685.

Broecker, W.S., Y.H.i, and J. Cromwell. 1967. Radium-226 and Radon-222 concentrations in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Science. 158: 1307-1310.

Broecker, W.S., and T.H. Peng. 1971. The vertical distribution of radon in the BOMEX area. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 11: 99108.

Sarmiento, J.L., W.S. Broecker, and P.E. Biscaye. 1978. Excess bottom radon-222 distribution in deep ocean passages. J. Geophys. Res., 83: 5068-5076.

Wilkening, M.H., and W.E. Clements. 1975. Radon-222 from the ocean surface. J. Geophys. Res., 80: 3828-3830.

87 FRANCIUM
88 RADIUM
Boyle, E.A., D.F. Reid, S.S. Huested, and J. Hering. 1984. Trace metals and radium In the Gulf of Mexico: an evaluation of river and continental shelf sources. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 69: 69-87.

Broecker, W.S., J. Goddard, and J. Sarmiento. 1976. The distribution of 226Ra in the Atlantic Ocean. Earth. Planet. Sci.ett., 32: 220-235.

Broecker, W.S., A. Kaufman, T.L. Ku, Y.C. Chung, and H. Craig. 1970. Radium-226 measurements form the 1969 north Pacific GEOSECS station. J. Geophys. Res., 75: 7682-7685.

Broecker, W.S., Y.H.i, and J. Cromwell. 1967. Radium-226 and Radon-222 concentrations in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Science. 158: 1307-1310.

Chung, Y.C. 1974. Radium-226 and Ra-Ba relationships in Antarctic and Pacific waters. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 23: 125-135.

Chung, Y.C. 1976. A deep 226Ra maximum in the northeast Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 32: 249-257.

Chung, Y.C. 1980. A 226Ra section across the East Pacific Rise. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 49: 319-328.

Chung, Y.C., and H. Craig. 1973. Radium-226 in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 17: 306-318.

Craig, H., S. Krishnaswami, and B.L.K. Somayajulu. 1974. 21OPb Ra: radioactive disequilibrium in the deep sea. Earth Planet. Sci.ett., 17: 295-305.

Knauss, K.G., T.L. Ku, and W.S. Moore. 1978. Radium and thorium isotopes in the surface waters of the East Pacific and coastal southern California. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 39: 235249.

Ku, T.L., Y.H. Li, G.G. Matthieu, and H.K. Wong. 1970. Radium in the Indian-Antarctic Ocean south of Australia. J. Geophys. Res., 75: 5286-5292.

Ku, T.L. and M.C. Lin. 1976. 226Ra distribution in the Antarctic Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 32: 236-248.

89 ACTINIUM
90 THORIUM
Knauss, K.G., T.L. Ku, and W.S. Moore. 1978. Radium and thorium isotopes in the surface waters of the East Pacific and coastal southern California. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 39: 235249.

Moore, W. S., and W. M. Sackett. 1964. U and Th series in equilibrium in seawater. J. Geophys. Res., 69: 5405-5409.

Somayajulu, B.L.K. and E.D. Goldberg. 1966. Th and U isotopes in seawater and sediments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1: 102-106.

Turekian, K.K., and L.H. Chan. 1971. The marine geochemistry of the uranium isotopes, 230Th and 231Pa. In A. 0. Brunfelt and E. Steinnes (eds.). Activation Analysis In. Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. Universitets Forlaget, Oslo, 311-320.

91 PROACTINUM
Turekian, K.K., and L.H. Chan. 1971. The marine geochemistry of the uranium isotopes, 230Th and 231Pa. In A. 0. Brunfelt and E. Steinnes (eds.). Activation Analysis In. Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. Universitets Forlaget, Oslo, 311-320.

92 URANIUM
Ku, T. L., K.G. Knauss, and G.G. Matthieu. 1977. Uranium in the open ocean: concentration and isotopic composition. DeepSea Res., 11: 1005-1018.

Moore, W. S., and W. M. Sackett. 1964. U and Th series in equilibrium in seawater. J. Geophys. Res., 69: 5405-5409.

Noakes, J.E., J. M. Kim, and I.R. Supernaw. 1967. Uranium radiochemical analysis of Gulf of Mexico seawater. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 48: 237.

Rona, E., L.O. Gilpatrick, and L.M. Jeffrey. 1956. Uranium determination in seawater. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 37: 697701.

Sackett, W.M., and G. Cook. 1969. Uranium geochemistry of the Gulf of Mexico. Trans. Gulf Coast Geol. Soc., 19: 233-238.

Somayajulu, B.L.K. and E.D. Goldberg. 1966. Th and U isotopes in seawater and sediments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1: 102-106.

Turekian, K.K., and L.H. Chan. 1971. The marine geochemistry of the uranium isotopes, 230Th and 231Pa. In A. 0. Brunfelt and E. Steinnes (eds.). Activation Analysis In. Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. Universitets Forlaget, Oslo, 311-320.

93 NEPTUNIUM
94 PLUTONIUM
Lee, D.S., J.M. Edmond, and K.W. Bruland. 1985/6. Bismuth in the Atlantic and north Pacific: A natural analogue to plutonium and lead. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 76: 254-262.

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