2011年2月26日土曜日

The changing age of the world population's increasing in the world changing stage.

【出展リンク】:
http://ameblo.jp/global7ocean/entry-10813438904.html

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From the Big to the Small,

The changing age of the world population's increasing in the world changing stage.

What  we ought to hope in the global world ???



1.Small is the new big

http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2005/06/small_is_the_ne.html

Big used to matter. Big meant economies of scale. (You never hear about “economies of tiny” do you?) People, usually guys, often ex-Marines, wanted to be CEO of a big company. The Fortune 500 is where people went to make… a fortune.
There was a good reason for this. Value was added in ways that big organizations were good at. Value was added with efficient manufacturing, widespread distribution and very large R&D staffs. Value came from hundreds of operators standing by and from nine-figure TV ad budgets. Value came from a huge sales force.
Of course, it’s not just big organizations that added value. Big planes were better than small ones, because they were faster and more efficient. Big buildings were better than small ones because they facilitated communications and used downtown land quite efficiently. Bigger computers could handle more simultaneous users, as well.
Get Big Fast was the motto for startups, because big companies can go public and get more access to capital and use that capital to get even bigger. Big accounting firms were the place to go to get audited if you were a big company, because a big accounting firm could be trusted. Big law firms were the place to find the right lawyer, because big law firms were a one-stop shop.
And then small happened.
Enron (big) got audited by Andersen (big) and failed (big.) The World Trade Center was a target. TV advertising is collapsing so fast you can hear it. American Airlines (big) is getting creamed by Jet Blue (think small). Boing Boing (four people) has a readership growing a hundred times faster than the New Yorker (hundreds of people).
Big computers are silly. They use lots of power and are not nearly as efficient as properly networked Dell boxes (at least that’s the way it works at Yahoo and Google). Big boom boxes are replaced by tiny ipod shuffles. (Yeah, I know big-screen tvs are the big thing. Can’t be right all the time).
I’m writing this on a laptop at a skateboard park… that added wifi for parents. Because they wanted to. It took them a few minutes and $50. No big meetings, corporate policies or feasibility studies. They just did it.
Today, little companies often make more money than big companies. Little churches grow faster than worldwide ones. Little jets are way faster (door to door) than big ones.
Today, Craigslist (18 employees) is the fourth most visited site according to some measures. They are partly owned by eBay (more than 4,000 employees) which hopes to stay in the same league, traffic-wise. They’re certainly not growing nearly as fast.
Small means the founder makes a far greater percentage of the customer interactions. Small means the founder is close to the decisions that matter and can make them, quickly.
Small is the new big because small gives you the flexibility to change the business model when your competition changes theirs.
Small means you can tell the truth on your blog.
Small means that you can answer email from your customers.
Small means that you will outsource the boring, low-impact stuff like manufacturing and shipping and billing and packing to others, while you keep the power because you invent the remarkable and tell stories to people who want to hear them.
A small law firm or accounting firm or ad agency is succeeding because they’re good, not because they’re big. So smart small companies are happy to hire them.
A small restaurant has an owner who greets you by name.
A small venture fund doesn’t have to fund big bad ideas in order to get capital doing work. They can make small investments in tiny companies with good (big) ideas.
A small church has a minister with the time to visit you in the hospital when you’re sick.
Is it better to be the head of Craigslist or the head of UPS?
Small is the new big only when the person running the small thinks big.
Don’t wait. Get small. Think big.
[this post is now the title essay of my new book .]


2. Small is beautiful.
Small Is Beautiful  :From Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_Is_Beautiful



【Reference】:


 People's increasing in the world.
http://www.google.co.jp/search?hl=ja&biw=1898&bih=807&rlz=1R2TSJH_jaJP417&&sa=X&ei=lQFoTf7ZCoLGvQPI5-3jAg&ved=0CBcQBSgA&q=people%27s+increasing+in+the+world.&spell=1

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 1). World population : From Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population


The world population is the total population of humans on the planet Earth . An automatically updated daily calculation by the United States Census Bureau [1] estimates the current figure to be approximately 6,902,100,000. The world population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Bubonic Plague around the year 1400.[2] The highest rates of growth—increases above 1.8% per year—were seen briefly during the 1950s, for a longer period during the 1960s and 1970s; the growth rate peaked at 2.2% in 1963, and declined to 1.1% by 2009. Annual births have reduced to 140 million since their peak at 173 million in the late 1990s, and are expected to remain constant, while deaths number 57 million per year and are expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040. Current projections show a continued increase of population (but a steady decline in the population growth rate) with the population expected to reach between 7.5 and 10.5 billion in the year 2050.[3] [4] [5]


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2). Agriculture, Fisheries and Food


Contents



JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 99, NO. C6, PP. 12,319-12,341, 1994
doi:10.1029/94JC00530
The production of North Atlantic Deep Water: Sources, rates, and pathways

Robert R. Dickson
Fisheries Laboratory, Directorate of Fisheries Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Lowestoft, Suffolk, England
Juan Brown
Fisheries Laboratory, Directorate of Fisheries Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Lowestoft, Suffolk, England


Updating an earlier account by Dickson et al., (1990), this paper reviews the initial development phase of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production from the points where the dense inflows from Nordic seas cross the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to the point off south Greenland where the buildup of new production appears almost complete. In particular, three long-term current meter arrays totaling 91 instruments and set at ∼160 km intervals south from the Denmark Strait sill are used to validate earlier short-term arrays by others and, in combination with these earlier arrays, to describe the downstream evolution of mean speed, depth and entrainment, the variability of the overflow current in space and time, and the likely contribution of the other three main constituents of NADW production at densities greater than σθ = 27.8. From the points of overflow (5.6 Sv) the transport within this range increases by entrainment and confluence with other contributory streams to around 13.3 Sat Cape Farewell. While recirculating elements prevent us from determining the net southgoing transport, a NADW transport of this order appears consistent with recent estimates of net abyssal flow passing south through the North and South Atlantic.

Received 2 December 1992; accepted 19 July 1993; .


Citation: Dickson, R. R., and J. Brown (1994), The production of North Atlantic Deep Water: Sources, rates, and pathways, J. Geophys. Res., 99(C6), 12,319–12,341, doi:10.1029/94JC00530.


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3). Sustainable economic structure

GUIDELINES FOR PROSPERITY,
SOCIAL JUSTICE AND
SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY


http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_17025-544-2-30.pdf


content
3 | Preamble
3 | guiding principles


1. Legal framework .......................................................3
2. Property ownership and employment ...........................3
3. Competition as the basis ............................................4
4. Application of the principle of liability ...........................4
5. Stability of the economic environment .........................4
6. Provision of public goods by the state ..........................4
7. Solidarity and social security .......................................4 8. Incentive compatibility ...............................................4
9. Sustainability ............................................................4
10. Open markets ...........................................................4
5 | Conditions of success for a global social and market-oriented economic order


Overcoming the global financial and economic crisis calls for international rules. The social market economy is a model providing an appropriate framework of orientation. Its value in the national context has been proven. The countries of the European Union have undertaken in the Treaty of Lisbon to work towards a “competitive social market economy”. The institutions of the European Union, notably the European Parliament, have demonstrated, especially in the last few months, that they are responding to this mission. Now those principles need to be placed on an international footing. Leading representatives of the political and academic communities in the European Union formulate what is at stake in the following Guidelines.

 Preamble
Increased economic and political interconnectedness has led to greater growth and competition in many countries around the world. It has improved education opportunities, strengthened the social infrastructure and reduced poverty. And yet, peace, freedom and justice are all under threat. The unequal distribution of global prosperity is a contributing factor for increasing political and social tensions. The only way to overcome the current financial and economic crisis is to have international rules for the financial markets. This requires a shared commitment to sustainable economic activity. We need an international consensus to enable prosperity, social justice and sustainable economic activity based on shared principles and values. Even at times of crisis, the positive effects of globalisation must not be put at risk by national or regional protectionism. Taking into account variations between cultures and societies, an orientation to the common good, democratic legitimacy and the inviolability of human dignity are the foundations upon which such a consensus shall be built.
Guiding principles
The guiding principles are solidarity and subsidiarity. Solidarity ensures that the market economy is continually legitimised by its orientation to the common good, while subsidiarity creates and guarantees the space for individual responsibility and initiative.
1. Legal framework
Afunctioning, reliable and democratically legitimate legal system is the basis for efficient and sustainable economic activity. It creates the preconditions for a strong economy, an efficient and citizen-friendly state administration, and compliance with the principles of good governance. Regulating elements and consistent supervision ensure that rules are adhered to and violations penalised. This is not an end in itself. Regulation is the appropriate and correct approach to shape incentives in a competitive economy in such a way that decentralised competitive activity benefits society.
2. Property ownership and employment
An efficient economic structure geared to sustainability must be based on a system of private property ownership that places the power of disposal over goods in the hands of private enterprises and households. Private ownership provides the critical incentive for generating income through work and is the basis of innovative entrepreneurship. Only an economic system that is based on private property can safeguard employment on a sustainable basis. This is the basis upon which individual responsibility and initiative can develop, without which an effective use of one’s own potential and of education, innovation, growth and prosperity is unimaginable. Private ownership characterises a competitive system in which a multitude of owners of small and medium-sized enterprises are liable for their economic activity through their personal property. Ownership entails social obligations. Making use of it must serve the common good. This ensures careful and sustainable business activity and protects against a one-sided concentration on short-term profit-seeking.


3. Competition as the basis
A
global competitive system based on the free determination of prices optimises the allocation of scarce resources. Fully functional competition is the engine that drives sustained economic activity. It fosters efficiency and progress, reinforces responsible behaviour and prevents the establishment of one-sided market power. A competitive system requires open markets, both nationally and internationally, and control of market power as well as concentration by the state and the international community. Competition is rooted in performance and equality of opportunity.
4. Application of the principle of liability
F
reedom of competition requires the application of the principle of liability by which competitive performance is tied to the responsible conduct of each participating player. The prospects for profits stimulate competition, while personal liability in the event of losses curbs irresponsible and excessively risky behaviour.
5. Stability of the economic environment
A
market economy needs a long-term economic policy and the greatest possible macroeconomic stability. This applies particularly to national and international financial markets. Confidence in a stable economic framework is a prerequi‑ site for investments and long-term consumption decisions. Such confidence also requires the rejection of protectionist measures and of a monetary policy geared only to short-term national economic and growth targets.
6. Provision of public goods by the state
I
n a market economy, the state must ensure the provision of public goods if the market is unable to provide these goods or can only do so inadequately. An efficient infrastructure, fundamental educational opportunities, and access to comprehensive healthcare provision are all areas that the state must be involved in shaping. The need for state invol-vement is particularly great where there is social disadvantage. However, there should be a limit to state intervention.
7. Solidarity and social security
E
conomic growth facilitates poverty reduction. The market economy cannot, however, prevent the development of income disparities and the disadvantaging of certain sections of the population. Therefore a market economy needs effective, broad-based social security systems functioning in line with market conditions, mechanisms for regional redistribu-tion and a performance-oriented system of taxation in order to safeguard social peace and to enable appropriate levels of participation by broad sections of the population in the development of the economy and society.
8. Incentive compatibility
A
market economy requires an incentive-oriented system of levies to finance state tasks. These taxes must be designed in such a way that they neither minimise performance incentives nor lead to allocative distortions.
9. Sustainability
E
very economic system must be judged also by its long-term results. In ecological, social and fiscal terms, sustai-nability is one of the most important criteria for success and an expression of intergenerational justice. A legal system based on responsibility and liability facilitates sustainability. In particular, an active climate protection policy is an economic and moral obligation towards safeguarding the natural basis of existence for future generations.
10. Open markets
G
oing it alone does not represent a cure for individual countries in the current crisis. On the contrary, it can exacerbate the global impacts of the economic crisis. What is crucial is a coordinated policy of open markets and respect for the rules of fair play. The relevant international institutions must be further strengthened to counter protectionism and economic nationalism.



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